NEVER AGAIN in Memory of Rwandan Holcaust Victims
” At a distance of sixteen years, the smell of decomposing corpses , the rivers of human blood that have flooded our fertile land , the eyes full of terror of the victims and those filled with sadistic killing spree of the executioners , haunt me and turning my life in an eternal nightmare. In sleep a vision is repeated endlessly : the blade of the machete that cuts off the flesh once , twice, three times , a thousand times . That machete blade has sliced an entire people , leaving indelible wounds in our hearts and condemning , we survived , to live in the memory , feeling guilty for being alive . “
Testimony of a survivor of the genocide .
Prelude to Genocide
During 80s the Hutu Power regime ( Hutu Power ) of Habyariamana faces an unprecedented economic and social crisis that highlights the contradictions between the populist propaganda of racial supremacy and the political control of a small group composed of Army’s mafia and the Akazuku ( name kinyaruanda to define unscrupulous businessmen ) , the vertices of which resided the President , his wife Agathe Habyarimana and his Hutu clans of the north. At the same time we are witnessing in the country of the emergence of a civil society composed of intellectuals and small business owners who are beginning to denounce government’s corruption and the promotion of racial hatred to justify the plundering of the country.
Despite the arrests and summary executions the movement is strengthened and in August 1990 thirty-three Hutu intellectuals and Tusti publish a political manifesto claims the end of one-party system led by National Revolutionary Movement for Development ( MRND ) , the party of Hutu Power founded by Juvenal Habyariamana based on racial supremacy with strong Nazi overtones .
The Inter-ethnic Manifesto claims also the end of racial division , free elections and the building of a just society for all Rwandans . This political document highlights all the falsity of the theory of the two distinct ethnic groups : Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda saying that are only one people.
This movement within the country is extremely significant for its ” multi-ethnic “, totally contradictory to the theory of government ” Tutsi conspiracy .”
For any difficulty faced by the mafia group that holds power in Rwanda , the scheme spreads the racial conspiracy theory of Tutsi , a plan devised by the minority to seize power establish racial supremacy over the majority Hutu population . The economic disaster and social tensions in the country, according to government propaganda are works of sabotage of the Tutsi to weaken the “democracy” and seize power .
The Tutsi conspiracy was accepted at the time by various media that Western Catholics. Some of them still now are continuing to promote this conspiracy theory with fragile historical basis .
For the first time since the publication of 1957 Manifesto Bahutu , Hutu and Tutsi reject the racial division and join forces in a common project for a real development of the country.
During the same period the Tutsi diaspora in Uganda suffer the direct consequences of the civil war in the country. In 1982, the regime of Milton Obote, Uganda’s first president after independence , order a violent persecution against Rwandan refugees in Uganda forcing 45,000 people to return to Rwanda. They will be locked up in refugee camps set up in the vicinity of the Ugandan border by Habyariamana government that rejects their integration in the country.
The policy hostile to the Rwandan refugees is the biggest mistake committed by Obote and one of the main factors that put an end to his regime . In 1984, the Tutsi refugees return in Uganda to join Yoweri Museveni’s guerrilla movement: the National Revolutionary Army ( NRA) . The Rwandan Diaspora represented 20% of the elite troops of the NRA , and contributed to the seizure of power in 1986.
In 1987, the Rwandan diaspora founded the Rwandan Patriotic Front , claiming the right to return to Rwanda. The FPR develops a progressive and nationalist policy involving the union of all Rwandans against the regime of Habyariamana and claims the establishment of a democratic state.
With the help of Museveni, the Ugandan army and the United States on October 1, 1990 the Inkotanyi ( fighting men ) of the Rwandan Patriotic Front , launched a military offensive in Rwanda from Ugandan border. Duriung the first weeks the offensive meets a little resistance by the government army , demoralized and corrupt .
It was only the intervention of elite units from Belgian and French armies who managed to stop the military offensive of the rebels. With the excuse to evacuate expatriates present in Rwanda, the Belgian and French soldiers engaged in the first person in the fighting in the north of the country in support of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) , the government army , and some troops sent by the Zairian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko , ensuring the survival regime Habyariamana .
In front of Belgians and the French military superiority the FPR was forced to fall back again in Uganda.
The government of Habyariamana tried to hide the internal support that guerrilla received, trying to prove that it was an invasion of the Ugandan army of mercenaries associated with Tutsis.
In fact, the civil society and the internal opposition to Rwanda , composed of Hutu and Tutsi , actively supported this military offensive in the hope that it would be able to overthrow the Hutu Power regime .
Intensive contacts preceded the offensive of the FPR , reaching a political agreement which provided the full support from the opposition to claim the Rwandan Tutsi diaspora in Uganda to return to the country and the willingness on the part of the RPF to form a government composed of multi- ethnic leader of the Diaspora and opposition leaders inside .
In June 1991 Habyariamana is forced to declare the end of his one-party and the establishment of multi-party system. Immediately born twelve political parties. After a series of violent popular demonstrations , the regime is forced to form in April 1992, a coalition government with the moderate parties of the opposition.
The political and military structure of the RPF underwent a complete change after the defeat of 1990. In order to strengthen the agreements reached with the opposition on the RPF, a Tutsi: Paul Kagame was appointed as head of the military movement and a Hutu: Alexis Kanyarengwe as chairman of the political movement.
Paul Kagame had played an important role during the liberation war in Uganda . As reward , the President Yoweri Museveni incorporated him into the structure of Intelligence . Subsequently, Kagame went to the United States for military studies , before returning to join the fight for the liberation of his country.
After a raid that saw the release of many political prisoners of the prison of Ruhengeri in January 1991, the RPF took control of the prefectures of Byumba Mulindi and to the north of the country.
In June 1992, the alliance between the RPF and the internal opposition to Rwanda was established , forcing the regime to recognize the guerrilla movement as a legal political party and to accept negotiations in the presence of international observers.
Between 1992 and 1993 in Arusha ( Tanzania) agreements were signed which provided for a cease-fire and the division of power through a coalition government that would prepare free elections.
The Hutu Ten Commandments .
Within the power system the hard wing of the Hutu Power was organized against President Habyariamana, accused of betraying the people of Hutu . At the head of this faction were members of the family of the president and his wife Agathe Habyariamana .
The radical faction was formed in March 1992, the Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR) began a violent propaganda against the opposition Hutu and Inyenzi ( cockroaches) of the FPR . For any progress toward a peaceful resolution of the crisis Rwandan CDR intensified its propaganda promoting racial and massacres against the Tutsi community .
CDR was not a political movement but a semisecret organisation within the system that in a short time was able to influence government policy .
It was based on the ” Hutu Ten Commandments ” a paper published in December 1990 which provided the ideological basis for the strengthening of the apartheid regime in force in Rwanda and for the final solution against all Tutsis and moderate Hutus , mostly in the center and south of the country , accused to betray the Hutu’s causes. This document was the final act of the evolution of Bahutu Manifesto drawn up in 1957 and the morla justification of the Holocaust.
In November 1992, a cousin of President Habyariamana , who occupied important positions in the ruling party MRND , during a rally in Gisenyi incited the people to throw in the river all the Tutsis in the city and send them back to their country of origin: Ethiopia. This was the first public signal of the intention to carry out the Holocaust .
After this meeting the CDR came out with closet and organized a series of provocations against the Tutsi community in order to derail the ongoing negotiations . The leaders of the CDR publicly inciting the population to violence and pogroms against the Tutsis in the country accused of being the “fifth column” of the rebels from Uganda .
In early 1993, a series of violence in the district of Gisenyi caused hundreds of deaths among the Tutsis.
In reality, the CDR was enabled to implement the final solution long before its formation in March 1992.
The massacres in Kibuye Kibirira and in October 1990 , of Bigogwe in January 1991 and Bugesera in March 1992 were designed and managed by the founding members of the CDR at the forefront of the President’s wife . The dead were already in the thousands.
Agathe Habyariamana, the Rwandan Rasputin, was known for Rwandan ethnic hatred against the Tutsi that went beyond all human logic . Publicly she covered the role of a modest and shy schoolteacher country submissive to her husband , but in reality was the creator of the Final Solution . Her Nazi mentality and heer fierce determination to implement the extermination exceeded that of the same husband , the creator of Hutu Power.
In March 1993, a survey carried out by international human rights organizations accused Agathe Habyariamana and other Presidential family members to be the authors of the massacres against the Tutsi and moderate Hutu community in the south of the country.
At the end of 1992, the CDR began to structure the plan for the final solution . Accurate lists of Tutsis , moderate Hutus , and opposition figures were drawn with the help of the prefectures and local dioceses .
Two genocidal militias were established and labeled as cultural associations : the Interahamwe ( fighting together) and Impuzamugambi (those that have one goal ) . The two militias had the task of organizing the population to make it an active participant in the genocide .
Faced with the obvious preparations for the genocide of the rebellion FPR decided to launch a second military offensive in February 1993 to overthrow the regime before it was too late.
Again, the FRP was stopped by the French army that engaged in violent clashes north of the country instead of the Rwandan Armed Forces now reduced to a simulacrum of army where hundreds of 14 years old children were forced enrolled.
This time the French army did not just stop the advance of the guerrillas , but he tried to launch a counter offensive able to fight them off in Uganda. The counter-offensive failed because of the determination of the guerrillas and the lack of involvement of the FAR. France was forced to back down because was becoming too obvious that his elite troops were the only military force that fought the guerrillas.
Unofficial sources reported the presence of Ugandan soldiers during the fighting against the French departments . The Government of Kampala has never responded to these allegations .
During the offensive of the FPR and the French army’s offensive against 900,000 people fled the conflict zone seeking refuge in Uganda or in the south of Rwanda.
It was created a ” buffer zone” controlled by the African Union military observers. The north of the country was under the control of the FPR while the rest of the country remained under the control of the Hutu Power regime .
The coup of January 1994.
In January 1994, the extremist wing of the CDR derailed the peace agreement in Arusha through a coup underground developed within the regime.
This coup was a purely political one and had not caused impeachment of the President . However, it was an effective means pressure the government’s policy to be radicalized towards the final solution.
The President Habyariamana , aware of the risk of permanently losing power , accepted this radicalization desired by the CDR . It was undertaken a campaign of assassinations of opposition leaders with the objective to destroy the alliance between moderate Hutus and Tutsi rebellion .
CDR infiltrated various extremist in some opposition parties , turning them into allies of the regime and in the promoters of the Hutu Power.
On summer of 1993 Habyariamana gave the order to arm the Interahamwe militias and Impuzamugambi , who were trained militarily by the presidential guard and military advisers from France, convinced that self-defense militias were popular, as reported by interna official sources from French Gouvernment.
A new independent radio station was founded in the Free Radio of a Thousand Hills ( RTLM ) , funded by the President’s wife . The radio had the task of amplifying ethnic hatred against the Tutsi and Hutu communities of southern described as traitors to the people .
April 6, 1994 . Start the holocaust .
The night between 5 and 6 April 1994, the presidential plane , coming from Tanzania , was shot down while landing at the international airport in Kigali. Habyariamana the President and his Burundian counterpart Cyprien Ntaryamira were on board . Two French pilots also died. Several inquires lead to the conclusion that the perpetrators were members of the CDR , including the wife of the President.
The final solution against Tutsi was ready since three years before but lacked the catalyst for bringing it up. Until now the massacres had not found an echo hoped to make genocide an irreversible act . The policy of the FPR and opposition Hutu moderates in the center and south, after two military offensives stopped by French troops , had focused on the refusal to respond to the provocations and the determination to continue the peace talks . This policy had hitherto prevented the CDR to convince people to participate in mass genocide. The majority of the population hoped for a peaceful solution to the crisis in Rwanda .
Another factor that played against the implementation of the final solution was the political instability of the President Habyariamana . His decisions on the future of the country ranged from the most ferocious repression and the willing to open a dialogue with the “enemies ” .
President Habyariamana deaht was the detonator of the devastating genocide.
A few minutes after the shooting down of the presidential plane, radio RTLM spread the news that the President had been killed by the rebels of the RPF and incited the population to take up arms in defense of the nation exterminating cockroaches and their accomplices, the Hutu moderates of the center and south.
The CDR immediately took control of the country , establishing a provisional government crisis that apparently was intended to control the country and prevent chaos. In fact, this provisional government was the instrument of co-ordination and management of the terrible genocide during the hundred days of the African Holocaust .
During the first week of the genocide CDR presented to the international public its own version of reality: the rebels had killed the President Kagame and the ongoing carnage was the result of the spontaneous outburst of anger of the population. CDR stated that the interim government was making all efforts to bring back the situation and calm the population .
The ufficial version: Kagame responsibility for the killing of President and the spontaneous uprising of the population as a direct result, was immediately accepted and adopted by France and the Vatican tried to impose the international community as a simple explanation of the causes of the Holocaust , hiding the ‘ horrible reality of a planned genocide least three years before with the active support of the French military advisers and a substantial part of the Catholic clergy and the Rwandan expatriate .
The methodology implemented in the genocide destroys any credibility of the official version provided by the provisional government.
Mounting evidence shows that the holocaust was premeditated and organized .
The lists of death began to circulate in secret between the Hutu population at least three months before the start of the genocide. Since January 1994 there was increase in the purchase of semi-automatic weapons not suitable for the army that were distributed to the militias . They were also purchased hundreds of thousands of machetes from China . The purchase took place inside of agricultural cooperation project funded by the European Community .
The systematic nature of the massacres, the perfect organization of the units of extermination , and the connivance of the local administrative and catholic authorities: prefects , mayors , parliamentarians, teachers , priests , policemen, who helped track down and kill many thousands of Tutsis and moderate Hutus , the decisive the role of radio Mille Collines are other compelling evidence that nothing was left to chance.
KILL THEM ALL EVEN THEIR CHILDREN . THE PIT IS HALF FULL. WE NEED TO FILL IT!
This was the slogan repeated continuously for 100 days from the Radio Mille Collines , directed by a Belgian -born Italian Geroges Ruggiu .
By analyzing the events of the 100 days of the genocide were the real reasons both political and racial .
Between 7 and 15 April, the majority of the members of the opposition Hutu were massacred , including Agathe Uwilingiyiamana , the Prime Minister, the President of the Supreme Court , Members of Parliament , leaders of human rights organizations and journalists.
They were all accused of being traitors to the “race Hutu ” and brutally killed , as were the only political obstacle and the evidence that there was the famous ” conspiracy Tutsi .” The opposition was based on multi-ethnic and political grievances and not racial .
The genocide began in Kigali, spread rapidly throughout the country (excluding the Northern prefectures controlled by the FPR ) . Particularly effective was the work of extermination in the prefectures of Gisenyi and Byumba , the government stronghold of Hutu Power : eighty thousand deaths in the first 6 days!
Between 10 and 22 April the massacres were propagated even in the prefectures of Kibungo , Cyangugu and Kibuye .
The university town of Butare represented an exception. The Hutu population refused to take action for the holocaust . It was only after the arrival of the Presidential Guard that genocide could begin to Butare .
The difference between the Nazi holocaust , and that of the Hutu Power is the speed of implementation of the final solution , in his public execution , and in the means to deliver it in the places where they consumed the burnt offering .
The Nazis took three years to kill 6 million Jews and several million prisoners of war (mainly Russians) , political opponents , gypsies , homosexuals, physically and mentally handicapped . The Hutu Power movement took only 100 days to kill a million people !
The victims of Nazism were removed discreetly inside the concentration camps and only a part of the army , the SS , was used . Despite the historical debates still going on in Germany , it seems very likely that the majority of the population and the army had not fully understood that the government was implementing the Nazi holocaust.
In contrast, the Hutu Power movement executed the final solution in the open, under the spotlight of the international media and with the active participation of the majority Hutu victims of hate and ethnic propaganda
Another feature of the Rwandan genocide were atrocious and horrendous means employed.
Men and women burned or buried alive . Children thrown against the walls to smash his skull. Infants placed in a wooden mortar and pulverized like grains corn to make flour . Victims left dying on the pavement with detached limbs with machetes . In some cases, the victims were able to spare these horrible sufferings with some money to convince their executioners to shoot them a bullet in the head.
To the concentration camps , the Hutu Power movement preferred stadiums, hospitals and churches. In at least thirty churches were consumed by a brutal massacres demonic tactics . The Catholic priests appealed to the victims Tutsis and moderate Hutus in churches promising their safety and protection of the sacred place .
When the churches were ” filled up ” the priests shut all the doors from the outside and the militia threw grenades through the windows and set fire . In some cases, the Catholic priests persuaded the militants not to use these methods but to enter into churches to personally exterminate cockroaches and traitors with machetes and spiked clubs .
The Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a military offensive from his positions in the north of the country a month after the start of the genocide. The Committee for the Defense of the Republic was fully aware that he had lost the war but would issue strict orders to the government troops stationed in the north to resist to the bitter end and to delay the advance of the Rwandan Patriotic Front , to allow you to complete the rest of the holocaust country.
Despite the ferocious and fierce resistance efforts of the regular army , the rebels managed to break through the front and began a race against time to take over the country and put an end to genocide.
Kagame took control of the capital and the city of Butare between 3 and 4 June 1994. The fighting in the capital lasted for over a month with violent attacks and counterattacks in all the hills where it stands Kigali.
The genocide in Ruhengeri and Gisenyi continued until the conquest of the two prefectures by the Rwandan Patriotic Front on July 17.
Some years after arose the suspect that Paul Kagame ordered the final offensive with a month of late to increase the number of victims in order to create a sense of guilt in the international community identical to that tried in 1945 to Jew survivors of Holocaust.
The last chapter horrendous holocaust was consumed in the ” safe zone ” on the border with Zaire under the protection of the French army during the operation “humanitarian” Tourquoise .
While France organized the escape of the government army and militias in neighboring Zaire genocidal together with the genocidal government of the people forced to flee Rwanda , the French army tolerated the extermination groups would end the work in the provinces of Gyangugu and Bibuye , freed from the FPR to the last week of August 1994 .
New clashes between French troops and the RPF occurred in the two provinces. This time the French military preparation was overwhelmed by the determination of the rebels to end the genocide in Rwanda. Soon the French government realized that all was lost and focused on the goal of bringing to safety in neighboring Zaire genocidal forces and the regular army to reorganize them in order to conquest again Rwanda.
France has always denied that his troops were engaged in fighting against insurgent111s during the operation of the FRP Tourquoise . An independent investigation ordered by the new Rwandan government collected hundreds of testimonies that prouved that fighting between the RPF and the French troops had actually occurred. Paris dismissed the investigation as propaganda of a government hostile to France.The Rwandan Patriotic Front inherited a devastated country where every corner thousands of bodies were eaten by wild dogs , crows and vultures. The young Tutsi soldiers from Uganda traumatized looked around still unable to believe that their country had been transformed in the last circle of hell Dante .
Various rebels units massacred without mercy hundreds of Hutu suspected of having participated in the genocide , without careful checks . These extra-judicial executions were stopped late in the Political Committee of the Rwandan Patriotic Front that had not yet transformed into the Provisional Government . FPR military reports record some execution of soldiers guilty to have massacred civilian population.
While the horror raped the minds of these young soldiers and the survivors could not understand how it was possible for them to still be alive , radio Milles Collines , now converted into mobile radio , near the Zaire and with the full complicity of the French launched yet his appeals .
” Do not get tired , the work must be completed . Kill all the children. The pit is half-full . We need to fill it !”