Faced with the defeat in Indochina, imposed on France by the communist Viet Minh guerrillas , Colonel Charles Lacheroy in 1953 formulated the Revolutionary War doctrine to fight all ” subversive ” guerrillas that may endanger the safety of French economic interests in Africa.
The doctrine of Colonel Lacheroy is based on the observation of the organization of the Vietnamese Communist guerrillas and the ” Total War ” doctrine formulated by Marshal Erich Luderdorff , German hero of the First World War and loyal strategist Adolf Hitler. The doctrine of Marshal Luderdorff was ruthlessly taken by Nazi SS elite corps in European countries occupied by Germany , and on the Russian front , resulting in over 15 million deaths.
Lacheroy Revolutionary War doctrine was applied for the first time during the Algerian revolution . But it is precisely in Rwanda that the doctrine finds its application more maniacal .
Charles Lacheroy, a military genius service the Great French .
1953 Indochina. Charles Lacheroy was an colonial army French official pledged to fight Viet Minh communist guerrillas that since 1946, has waged a bloody war against France for independence .
Charles Lacheroy operated is the final phase of this war : the inglorious military defeat of the French army decreed by the massacre of the Dien Bien Phu battle lasting 56 days. Indochina (now Vietnam ) is the first colony to escape under the control of France who had succeeded with difficulty in maintaining its overseas Colonial Empire despite the Motherland had been occupied by the Nazis during WW II.
Since 1943 Africa and Asia colonies were vital for to free the Motherland , providing the raw materials for the war and the troops needed to redial the French army defeated by the Wehrmacht in May 1940 .
General Charles De Gaulle government -in-exile was counting on the colonial troops , composed by Moroccans, Tunisians, Algerians, Senegalese , Malian , Chadian and minimally from Indochina , to obtain a equal political position wiht Americans and British Allies after Nazi defeat.
Without the Afro Asian Army, France would be forced to accept a position entirely subordinate to Great Britain and the United States in the new Europe emerged from the ashes of World War II . A position that probably would prevent French from becoming a military, nuclear and economic power both in Europe and worldwide.
The inglorious loss of Indochina is a fatal blow not only to the economic and geo strategic interests of France in Asia. The defeat destroys the nationalist politics of the invention called ” Grandeur Francais ” (The Great French) on which the De Gaulle Government post-war policy was based.
“The Communists victory not only robbed us of our Indochina. It has jeopardize the Empire survived to the Nazis . Soon other colonies will start to follow Viet Minh example creating uprisings everywhere.” pronounced President De Gaulle at the moment to sign the withdrawal of French troops from Indochina, July 12, 1954 , according to memories of some of his collaborators.
Charles Lacheroy , was engaged in the fighting in the front line in the intelligence services department operating in Indonesia. This gave to him an unique opportunity to study the tactics used by the Viet Minh that led to the victory against the second European most powerful Army after Great Britain .
Lacheroy understood the existence inside of communist guerrilla of a parallel hierarchy that was able to create public support to the communist rebels .
” The Viet Minh accompanies each Indochinese from his birth to his death, and adjusts their lives and protecting them . The Viet Minh City has managed to create a perfect symbiosis where the population lives for the party and the party lives for the population . We will never win this damned war. “, wrote Lacheroy in 1953 in a report addressed to his superiors in Paris.
The parallel hierarchy was carefully studied and described by Lacheroy that summarizes as a single Machiavellian power system divided into three distinct hierarchies .
The first hierarchy provides the link between the population and the communist guerrilla through a pyramid of youth , women, elderly, professional, cultural associations , even to people with disabilities who work tirelessly to strengthen the symbiotic relationship between the party and the people.
The second hierarchy is divided into regions, provinces and villages, which replaces the colonial administration by creating a new one.
This new administration does not control the population through coercion but by ideological affiliation , providing health care , education, law enforcement and defense organizing small but effective self-defense groups in each village.
These groups are used as a Fifth Column behind enemy lines for the French sabotage, military attacks and information service that create major difficulties in logistic supply, material losses and men who demoralize the morale of the French troops just as the French guerrilla bands sabotaged and demoralizing the German army during the years of occupation of France .
The third hierarchy is represented by the Communist Party that controls the other two hierarchical systems, despite its members are only 10% of the total population.
Lacheroy noted that the Vietnamese Communist Party was not composed by ordinary supporters and members, but only by young Marxist leaders well trained to organize the life of the party , to fight and rule the population through methods of political propaganda associated with ” a fanaticism for the cause and a hatred of the French civilization that has no precedent in human history” says Lacheroy in a report sent to Paris .
After Indochina war Charles Lacheroy was moved at the Special Military School of Saint- Cyr , where he become Director of the Ministry of Defence with the task create of the Office of Psychological Action.
This French Army department, kept secret to West Allies, became operational in the colonies in order to quell any attempt at revolution by using the methods learned by the Gestapo and the Nazi SS .
Some leaks of the time supported the presence within the Office Action Psychological Association , of several members the two Germans dismantled Nazi organizations with the role of instructors . These allegations were never substantiated by evidence detectable in the secret documents declassified and made available to the public, or from official records of the soldiers enrolled in this department .
There are only clues that lead to think about the veracity of these leaks propagated at the time by the French Communist newspapers , such as the renowned belonging to Nazi ideologies of the elite group of Paratroopers , formed by the Office of Psychological Action . These Nazi ideologies still persists in French Paratroopers corps including those employed in the Central African Republic. Unfortunately, these signs are only able to provide guesses, not evidence , then of little legal value .
Since 1956, French Government and the Ministry of Defense agree to apply the doctrine of the Revolutionary War compiled by Charles Lacheroy to the African colonies , experiencing it in Algeria.
” The National Liberation Front is a communist organization identical to that of the Viet Minh . We must not repeat the mistake of Indochina fighting the FNL only on our military and technological superiority . To win this war we must win the hearts and minds of the Algerian people” reports Charles Lacheroy the Chief of Staff of the French Army .
The doctrine of the Revolutionary War .
What exactly is Charles Lacheroy’s Revolutionary War doctrine?
This doctrine , considered revolutionary , is not based solely on the observations made by the organization of the Viet Minh done by Lacheroy during the Indochina War.
In the official history this doctrine is solely attributed to the military genius of Lacheroy . In reality it is the result of a collaboration with other French Army veterans of the war in Indochina or with long years of service in the colonial army . The four Officers who cooperated with Lacheroy in the drafting of the doctrine were: Jacques Hogard , Baufre André , Jean de Lattre de Tassigny and Lucien Poirier . These formed the so-called ” Group Lacheroy “.
The studies on the organization of the Viet Minh , were integrated with Nazi military doctrines and teachings of the Bolshevik Party and the Chinese communist guerrillas .
O n 1936, in Berlin was published a pamphlet entitled The Total War, written by a German hero of the First World War , Marshal Erich Luderdorff . In short time the pamphlet became a best seller among the circles of power in Europe : London, Paris, Vienna , Berlin.
Marshal Ludenndorff , questioning the emergence of new forms of conflicts , explaining that the war in the trenches and between the armies belongs to the past.
Marshal Ludenndorff wrote: “The new conflicts will see the abolition of the distinction between civilian and military, both actively involved in every phase of the war. The new war will not be fought between armies and nations but between races and economic powers .
To win the war the Government and the Army must acquire modern military means such as psychological propaganda , radio, and control of the media and the masses.
Prior to unleash an offensive against the rival country there is need to win the psychological warfare directed towards its own population and from that of the enemy .
The internal psychological warfare must create an identity that goes beyond the old foreign enemy concept . Today’s enemies are not the British, Germans, Frenchs , or others. . They are Jews , secret lobbies, the Communists , the Socialists and the Catholic Church , regardless their nationality. It is necessary that own people can be able to recognize these transnational enemies and learn to hate them .
The target Country population too must abele to recognize these enemies , through the patient work of militant cadres belonging to the same population that adhere to the ideological cause and race.
For the principle of association of ideas, once the work of these militants will be completed , the Army will no longer be seen as invaders, but as a liberator against the international Jewish Bolshevik tyranny .
Thanks to this insider job, played before that the first salvo of cannon will be fired, the foreign people will not feel fire conquest but liberated and they will encourage the repression of their own opposition , c as the real enemy : the Fifth Column to be exterminated without mercy by helping and collaborating with the friendly invading army.”
Adolf Hitler remains entranced by this revolutionary theory and Marshal Ludenndorff was appointed as the First Director of the Third Reich Strategies.
The Total War has been tested during the Spanish Civil War . Marshal Ludenndorff inspired the complex propaganda system of Joseph Goebbels and his theory was applied on all fronts by the Nazis during the Second World War.
In several European Countries conquered Nazism was able to create an important support of the conquered population. The most successful examples of Total War tactics were : France, the Balkans and Georgia.
The limits of Total War were put to light during the Battle of Stalingrad (Russia), where, despite the methodical application of the theory the population sided with Stalinism allowing the victory of the Red Army and the beginning of the fall of the Third Reich .
The Lacheroy Group wase also inspired by a work of Mao Tse-tung published in 1936 and translated into French in 1950 : “ Problems of China’s Revolutionary War Strategy“.
This work affected Lacheroy , Hogard , Baufre , de Tassigny and Poirier , more than Marshal Ludenndorff theory , as explained by the researcher of the Historical Service of the French Army : Marie -Catherine Villatoux
” Lacheroy and colleagues remain dazzled by the work of Mao Tse-tung because the majority of them lived on their skin the strategy set during the war in Indochina. The validity of the theory has been verified in the victory obtained by the Viet Minh despite of that they were few ideological ties that united the Vietnamese Communist Party in the Chinese “.
The list of great works that inspired Lacheroy Revolutionary War there was also a work published in 1939 : ” The rape of the masses by political propaganda ” written by Russian Communist psychologist Serge Tchakhotine . Friend of Albert Einstein and Ivan Pavlov , Tchakhotine is considered as the inventor of modern propaganda and one of the first theorists of crowd psychology together with the French Gustave Le Bon .
Tchakhotine work examines the psychological manipulation of the masses utilising political propaganda able to embed in a context of conflict.
According Tchakhotine , a mixture of propaganda , psychological action and ideological mobilization of the masses can bring to the victory thanks to the enormous and dramatic sacrifices that people without this manipulation may not be willing to do .
The theory of Tchakhotine has been successfully tested by the Communist Party led by Joseph Stalin during the “Great Patriotic War” (a term used in Russia to define the Second World War took place on the Eastern Front ) .
Various western historians have described the use of coercive means such executions , decimation , deportations to Siberia of families, mass killing of the troops retreating from a failed offensive without the order of theirs superiors as the only methods used by Stalinism to force Russians soldiers to fight the Nazis without appropriate weapons.
Although these means have been partially used, is the theory of psychological propaganda create by Tchakhotine that donated the best results. Millions of young Russians poured on the battlefields with old rifles without artillery or air covering making mowing the most technologically advanced army of the time: the Wehrmacht with no hope of victory, but only death.
This impulse was created by the rape on the masses operated by psychological propaganda . These millions of young Russians never thought to rebel against their officers but died to defend the homeland and their Father Stalin.
In the first year and a half of German Offensive Barbarossa was recorded 62% of the total losses of the Red Army ( 13.8 million throughout the war period ) . This sacrifice of the mass gave to Soviet Union the time needed to activate the war industry , modernizing the army , to train new recruits to modern combat tactics and ultimately emerge as the real winner of the Nazis in World War II world .
The Revolutionary War applied in Rwanda.
1959. The inevitable independence process starts simultaneously in Congo , Rwanda and Urundi (now Burundi) .
In that year the Belgian government sends in Kigali : Lieutenant Guy Logiest and Major Louis Marlière , considered among the best officers of the Force Publique ( colonial troops in the Belgian Congo) .
The two officers , in close collaboration with the ” Lacheroy Group ” and the French army , aim to plant the French Revolutionary War in Rwanda.
Both of them were military observers in the French army during the campaign of mountainous areas of Laos ( 23 February to 18 June 1954).
On their return from Indochina submit a joint report to the King and the Belgian Government which ends by stating: ” The guerrilla war , the most likely form of warfare , effective in Africa, can not win without the support of the total population . That’s what we have to exploit in favor of Belgium . ”
In 1957, the two officers were involved in a joint military exercise between the Belgian, British , French and Portuguese armies , which took place in Katanga , Congo : the program Tornade .
The objectives are clear as synthetic .
Identify rebels inside of Katanga Province.
Discontinue their ties with the people creating their own bonds of good cooperation between civil and military authority and the natives.
Apply against the guerrillas their own guerrilla tactics both in the forest and in urban centers .
Restore order in major urban centers through a mixture of repression targeted only rebels assuring to civilian population reconciliation and protection.
The program ” Tornade ” will be successfully applied by the British and Belgian troops to win the war in Katanga after the declaration of independence on 11 July 1960 by Moise Tshombe declared leader of the CONAKAT party, with the initial support assured by Belgian investors .
Logiest and Marlière in 1959 , before traveling to Kigali, benefited of fifteen days special training at the Training Centre for Peace and Against Guerrillas in Arzew , Algeria.
Their comprehensive training enables them to apply the Revolutionary War in Rwanda.
The two officers during the three years before independence (in 1962), eliminated physically the most dangerous opponents and political leaders favoring the emergence of a Hutu opposition based on the ideological foundations of the Bahutu Manifesto of 1957. They helped to spread among the population of the idea that the Tutsi were not only the hateful masters who enslaved the masses but also the communist bastards .
Some historians argue that there was a close collaboration between the Lacheroy Group , these two special agents, Belgium, France and the Vatican since 1957 to create the ideal conditions for racial supremacy and the Nazi ideology of Hutu Power in Rwanda.
During the first period of implementation of the Revolutionary War in Rwanda , Guy Logiest was left alone to monitor the application being Louis Marlière promoted to Head of the Office of Information Unit to Leopoldville ( now Kinshasa ) . Marlière received the task of encouraging the rise to power of Sergeant Joseph Mobutu and participate along with CIA agents in the torture and murder of former Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba . After carried out with meticulous devotion to the tasks assigned to him , Marlière returned to Kigali to support the work of his Comrade.
Logiest & Marlière work to support Hutu extremists continues after independence until 1975 when France takes over the control of Rwanda.
Burundi was considered lost : in the hands of the Communists Tusti, due by errors committed by Belgium .
As a first action required , Paris signed a pact of Military Assistance with President Juvenal Habyariamana providing modern weapons , training the army , but above all to create the body of Gendarmerie in Rwanda on the model of French , able to replace the police , dissolved in July 1973 .
France individuated in the Gendarmerie the best internal security body suited to implement the Revolutionary War , and create a vast network of information and control over the population.
Objective: To prevent at all costs the seizure of power by Tutsi Communists.
The model of the Rwandan Gendarmerie was personally structured by Colonel Lacheroy and was applied until the fall of the Nazi racial regime occurred during 1994 genocide.
The Revolutionary War in Rwanda was based on three hierarchical levels.
The first level provided the vertical control and military population , through the creation , organization and management of military teams called: DIT ( Internal Defense of the Territory ). In peacetime, DIT teams collaborated with the gendarmerie and the municipal police to maintain public order . In times of crisis , were supposed to be activated to mobilize the population in order to fight the enemy .
The second level was horizontal through the administrative fragmentation in tiny centers of power to assure state authority in each hill, village, municipal, city , regions. In September 1974, the Decree Law on the communal organisation changed the method of election of the Mayor ( who started to be appointed directly by the President and not elected ) and refines the regional administration pyramid Prefecture , District, Municipality , introducing a fourth institution called : Cells controlled by the most extremist Hutu Power militants.
Each cell was controlling group from 10 to 50 families living in the same neighborhood or hill . The task were Implement a control of these families , ensuring their loyalty and organize them in PPE units (Personal Urban Protection) created by Colonel Trinquier during the Battle of Algiers.
The third level , the supreme one, checked out the previous levels and was managed by the National Revolutionary Movement for Development ( MRND ), the one-party ruled by President Juvenal Habyariamana founded in 1976.
” The Revolutionary War is now operational in Rwanda. From the capital to the most remote hill. Everything is under MRND control with the aim of defending the country from internal enemies . The eyes of the Movement is everywhere . Who accuses France of supporting a racial, harsh and cruel dictatorship I answer that MRND regime is a thousand times better than a Communists Tutsi regime.” says Colonel Charles Lacheroy in 1979 .
The realization of Revolutionary War doctrine was not a secret affair of the France- Afrique African Cell. At the contrary, was of public domain and approved by the entire French political class during period that Francois Mitterand was Minister of Internal Affairs in 1954 and Minister of Justice in 1956.
During these two terms in office , Mitterrand was in charge of defending the Revolutionary War doctrine in the Parliament that was criticizing its application in Algeria who created hundreds of thousands of deaths among the civilian population.
President Mitterand offered to Lacheroy the full power to manage the Revolutionary War in Rwanda. Rwandan Revolutionary War was cited as an example of peacekeeping in Africa by the French Military School and became the favorite topic for the essays written by researchers and professors of the Faculty of Political Science at the Sorbonne University.
The Revolutionary War, which led to the 1994 genocide, is currently applied with the same methodology in Burundi following the advent to power in 2005 the Nazi racial Party CNDD-FDD head of which lies President Pierre Nkurunziza. As in Burundi in 1959, “experts” Franco-Belgian are currently supposed to be present in Bujumbura, capital of Burundi, to oversee the proper implementation of the Revolutionary War.